Types of building stones
In today’s age, with the advancement of science and technology, stone extraction has become easier and its use in the construction industry has increased significantly. Stones have unique capabilities that cannot be compared with other building materials.
Table of Contents
Perhaps its most important features can be seen in its very high durability and resistance, good polishability, high abrasion and impact resistance, cutting and polishing ability, washing ability, color stability, resistance to heat and humidity, good tensile and bending resistance, impenetrability, resistance to weather changes, hardness and high pressure resistance, stability against acidic and alkaline substances and many other things.
In general, the application and use of stones is also in the direction of covering the inner wall of the building, facade, road infrastructure, street floor and sidewalk and various decorations. This article is a comprehensive guide on the types of building stone and its uses.
Characteristics of a suitable building stone
The stone must have a healthy structure, so that it does not have grooves, cracks, and loose veins, and it must be uniform and uniform.
Building stone should not have the ability to absorb a lot of water, so it should not disintegrate and dissolve in water.
Building stone should not be contaminated with natural and artificial materials, in fact it should be available completely clean.
Stone stability against environmental factors
Natural stone must withstand the physical and chemical conditions of the environment, so it must resist wind, frost, temperature changes, and in case of water flow and all erosion factors.
The compressive strain for load-bearing parts should not be less than 150 kg/cm2.
Types of building stone
In general, stones are divided into different types in terms of design, color, material, and quality, and the description of some of the most practical ones includes:
Marble is a kind of white and transparent calcareous metamorphic stone that is resistant to weather conditions to a good extent, but due to the possibility of weathering against weather conditions and the possibility of becoming cloudy under light radiation, it is mainly used inside the building. Usually, this stone is cut parallel and perpendicular to the layers, which creates an eye-catching beauty. Also, the variety of colors, the ability to cut and polish is one of the unique features of this stone, which has classified it as one of the expensive stones.
Granite is one of the igneous rocks of volcanic origin, which has considerable hardness and strength. It is interesting to know that this stone is known as one of the best floor coverings for buildings, and at the same time, it can be used inside the exterior of buildings, especially in very cold areas, as a durable stone with low water penetration and expansion and contraction are used sparingly. On the other hand, due to the very reasonable price of this stone, its durability and the stability of its color, it can be considered as a very ideal facade stone.
Travertine stone is one of the stones that is known as one of the best examples used both in the exterior of the building and in the interior decoration of the building. The use of travertine stone is usually in building facades, flooring, stairs, toilets and other cases. Among the most famous travertine stones is Haji Abad travertine, which is known all over the world. This stone has a cloudy, windy and wavy design and has excellent cutting ability. Haji Abad stone is a very ideal option for use in facades of buildings and hotel lobbies. Regarding the features of this product, it can be said that due to the high porosity of this type of stone, it can be used as a natural insulator. Compared to granite, travertine has a more reasonable price, so its use is more common.
The reasons for the acceptance of travertine:
- High resistance
- Beauty and reasonable price
- Ideal cutting and polishing
- The presence of porosity to adhere to the mortar
5. Quartz Stone
Quartz stone is a kind of very hard metamorphic rock that was formed due to a lot of pressure and heat brought to the sandstone in the layers of the earth. This stone has a rough and hard and crystalline surface and can be seen in red, gray and brown colors. On the one hand, quartz is a stone with an appearance similar to marble, but with more resistance, and on the other hand, it is similar to granite, but harder than that. It should be noted that the price of quartz stone is lower than other stones.
6. Marble Stone
Contrary to what may come to your mind the first moment you hear the name of this stone, we must admit that marble stone is nothing like marble. It is interesting to know that this type of stone does not absorb water, but it has little resistance to weathering and acid rains, and this low resistance has made this stone to be used only inside the building. It should also be noted that marble stones are classified into three categories: porcelain stone, crystal stone and cloud stone. Meanwhile, crystal marble has a coarse and crystalline texture, and cloudy marble is formed by non-parallel bands resulting from the accumulation of light and dark minerals.
You might be surprised if you find out that sandstone is the result of the accumulation of sand in the bottom of the streams and that is why this rock is considered one of the sedimentary rocks. In general, you can see sandstone in white, gray, reddish brown, yellow, red, and brown colors in the market, and this variety of colors is a factor for the high versatility of this type of stone in the construction industry. Sandstone can be used in flooring, wall covering, roof covering, balconies and swimming pools.
8. Gabbro Stone
This stone is a type of internal igneous rock that has a dark color and coarse texture. The color of gabbro is green, black and greenish gray, which gives a unique effect with polishing. Gabbro stone is one of the stones that are used in the construction of cabinet counters, floor tiles and building facades. The resistance of gabbro stone to weathering is high, that’s why it is used for building facades and flooring.
9. Antique Stone
Antique stone is in the category of decorative stones, which is made by placing pieces of travertine next to each other. It is interesting to know that this type of stone is used as a decorative stone in the interior and exterior of buildings and landscaping gardens.
10. Crystal or Porcelain Stone
Crystal or porcelain stone is another type of metamorphic limestone whose fine crystals can be seen on the surface of the stone. This stone has higher hardness due to the presence of more quartz. It is also interesting to know that the presence of impurities in this type of stone has caused gray or black, green, pink or red, yellow streaks in its texture.
It should be noted that the porosity of this stone is low and its water absorption is low, so this stone can be used in humid environments.
11. Plinth Stone
Plinth stone, is a type of stone used in building construction to prevent moisture from penetrating the walls, and this stone is generally used at the bottom of the walls.
12. Artificial Stone
Artificial stones (onyx) are a type of decorative material that is obtained by combining natural stones with other additives. This type of special additives has the ability to apply light weight to the composition of natural stone, and as a result, onyx stones can be installed easily.
Features of artificial stone:
- High physical and thermal resistance
- Low moisture penetration, less erosion and low weight
- Variation in color with the ability to implement different designs
- Ability to stick more to the wall or floor
- Freezing resistance up to fifty degrees below zero
- High resistance to atmospheric factors and color resistance to solar radiation
In general, the applications of artificial stones include the use in the bathroom and kitchen, the use for the pillars of the house, in addition to the use in the floor and the interior and exterior facades of the building.
13. Gneiss Stone
Gneiss is another type of metamorphic rock that is formed during the process of metamorphism of granite. Gneiss is one of the resistant and durable stones, so that its specific weight is 2.69 and it has a high resistance against crushing. Also, among the applications of this type of stone, it can be mentioned in paving and use as paving stones.
14. Diorite stone
Another stone that is used for building facades, floors and stairs is diorite stone. Diorite stone is a kind of coarse-grained igneous rock whose grain texture is shaped, the same size, or shapeless. This stone has gray, dark gray and greenish gray coloring.
15. Tuff stone
This type of stone is one of the types of volcanic ash stones that, due to the low adhesion of its particles, becomes flaky due to weathering and is separated from it in the form of small grains. This stone is used in wall construction, park construction and retaining walls due to its attractive green color.
Wide range of stone applications
As we mentioned in this article, stones are widely used in construction due to their resistance and stability against various factors. Nowadays, due to the ease of stone extraction operations, its use is expanding and it is used in different places of the building. Among the uses of stones in the construction industry, the following can be mentioned:
1. Covering the interior walls of the building
It is interesting to know that the use of stone for the interior wall of the building gives it a very magnificent and cool appearance. Basically, in this direction, stones with a special and beautiful appearance are used, in addition, its porosity is low so that it is not damaged by washing with detergents and its resistance is not reduced.
In fact, the use of stone in interior covering includes bathroom and toilet wall covering, office buildings, stores, dining halls and any place in sight.
2. Facade of buildings
Another use of stone is building facades. As you know, in order to implement the facade of the building, durable and resistant stones are used so that they are not damaged by various environmental factors. Variable weather conditions, sunlight, frost, dust, acid rains, air pollution and many other factors are among those that affect stone resistance; Therefore, we recommend that you check its minerals before stoning the facade and buying the stone, because the stones that have iron minerals do not have a high resistance to wear and tear and are oxidized by the weather. In addition, if impurity is seen in a part of the stone, it can lead to its destruction.
It should be noted that the facade is chosen based on the region and weather conditions in which the building is built. For example, stones with low porosity are suitable for cold regions because frost or wind will not destroy them. In general, due to exposure to the open air and changing weather conditions, the facing stone must have the necessary stability to be considered a suitable choice for the facade.
3. Paving stones
The stone used for stairs and flooring will be subject to wear and impact, so it must be very hard and have high wear and impact resistance. In addition, due to being exposed to pollution, the stone floor and stairs should have a small porosity so that it is impervious and not damaged by washing with detergents and pouring acidic or alkaline substances on it. It should also be noted that among the stones that are suitable for floors and stairs are quartz and gneiss stones.
4. Stones covering the walls
The stones that are used for the walls and foundation are arranged irregularly and without a specific shape, and in general, to save the cost of construction, the stones that are seen in the area are used. They also use smaller pieces of stone to fill the gap between the stones. It should be noted that porous stones and stones that have layers and are highly soluble are not suitable for walls and foundations; but hard stones with high compressive strength and specific weight are suitable for this work. In general, sandstone and limestone are suitable options for walls and foundations.
5. Decorative stones suitable for beautifying the space
In general, stones that have a good color and appearance, and in addition to high durability, also have good bending and tensile strength, are used in the interior decoration of the building. These stones are used to decorate the wall of the fireplace, columns, door and window frames and many other important places in terms of beauty.
Important points when buying stones
Remember that each stone is suitable for a specific place according to its physical and chemical characteristics; Therefore, when buying stone, we must pay more attention to the place for which we get the stone. For example, travertine for the exterior, marble for decorating the luxurious interior, marble for the carpet floor and interior, granite for flooring and stairs are very suitable and are chosen according to the environmental conditions of each environment; therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to this point among the issues.
Make sure that the appearance of the purchased stone must be without cracks, seams, voids, decay and loose streaks. It should be noted that by hitting the stone with a metal object, you can understand the existence of cracks and grooves to some extent. In fact, hearing the glass-like sound indicates the absence of cracks in the stone texture.
When buying stone, be sure to take care when loading and transporting it, because in many cases, the stone may be damaged in one of these steps.
The price of all kinds of stones
The price of building stones is determined according to its quality and type. In fact, in checking the price of stone, cheap and expensive does not mean much and the price difference is due to the difference in the quality and type of stone. For example, travertine has a different price than granite. Also, in general, the place of stone extraction, diversity in the structure and quality of the stone is also effective in determining its price.
As you read in the previous article, stones have very distinct categories. Marble, marble, granite, sandstone and dozens of other special examples have entered the market for construction purposes. Also, as you have seen, some of these products can be used internally and others can be used externally. All these materials have been collected and researched in order to increase your information, and in the end, it is hoped that the upcoming materials regarding the introduction of different types of stones will be of interest to you.