Grade A Rice: The stages of rice production include preparation of rice seeds, preparation of the storage (a small part of the land in which germinated seeds are planted to become seedlings), clearing the land, planting seeds, plowing and fertilizing the main land, harvesting seedlings, planting seedlings in the main land, irrigation and weeding, spraying, harvesting of rice and combine harvesting, respectively. After these steps, rice is taken to the factory for the next steps.
1: Preparing the storage for rice planting
Since rice in Iran is generally planted by transplanting method, farmers in the fall perform storage preparation operations about 6 months before the start of rice planting operations.
2: Rice seed germination
Farmers keep some of their previous year’s rice seeds in a dry and suitable place, away from any animals and mice, in the form of paddy or spikes. Then, in April of the new year they germinate last year`s seeds with special operation. Next, the germinated seeds are ready to be planted in the ground. The rice germination stage takes about 10 days.
3: Planting germinated seeds in the storage
This stage begins from the beginning of April and after the germination stage. It lasts about 25 to 30 days until mid-May.
4: Transplanting the seedlings from the storage to the main land
After the seeds have grown about 20 cm and once each seed has 4 or 5 leaves, it should be gently plucked from the soil and taken to the main land for plantation.
5: Planting seedlings in the main land
Transferring seedlings from the storage to the main land for planting operations is called transplanting. The seedlings are planted several times and the number of seedlings that are placed next to each other as well as the distance of each seedling from the surrounding bunches depend on the type of seedlings.
Refer to “Rice Planting Steps” to find out exactly what operations are implemented in each step.
The first step in the set of rice cultivation steps is the germination stage of rice seeds.
The first crop rice is when farmers prepare the seeds in April and plant it in June. Depending on the place of cultivation, this rice is harvested in August or early September.
What is second crop rice?
When the first crop of rice is harvested, the farmers plow the land again, and for the second batch, they plant the rice seeds prepared one month before. This rice is usually harvested in November of each year. This type of rice is called second crop rice. Among the second cultivated rice, we can mention Binam and Amrollahi.
Cultivation of this rice is common in Mazandaran province and especially in Fereydunkenar city. In Gilan province due to cold weather, second crop rice is not planted.
Is rice of the first crop better or the second crop?
Both have several basic differences, which include the following:
- The second crop rice has a better aroma and is cooked easily.
- Rice grains of the second crop are larger.
- The first crop of rice is healthier; because in the stages of planting rice, the first crop is less poisoned.
- The water used for the second crop of rice is less than the first crop.
What is low-yield and high-yield rice?
Iranian rice cultivars are divided into 2 categories: high yield and low yield.
Low yield rice
Low-yield rice has a higher quality and due to the fact that less per hectare is obtained from them, they are more expensive than high-yield rice.
The rice has a relatively lower quality and price compared to low-yield rice and more per hectare is obtained.
Each grain of rice consists of 4 layers, which from outside to inside include: paddy rice, bran (rich in fiber), sprouts (rich in vitamins and minerals) and endosperm which is the starch part of rice. Paddy is the very first layer of rice that can not be eaten. In brown rice, only the paddy is separated and the underlying layers, bran and sprouts, are preserved. But in white rice, it is the only remaining layer.
What are the properties of brown rice?
Brown rice is a whole grain. Each cup of brown rice has about 200 kcal of energy. It is an excellent source of fiber, B vitamins, manganese, selenium, iron, calcium, potassium and magnesium. Below are some of the properties of brown rice:
Due to the presence of manganese, the risk of metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, stunted growth and fertility is reduced.
Due to having various antioxidants and flavonoids, it can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress in body.
Due to having fiber, it can reduce weight and abdominal skin, it also prevents cardiovascular diseases.
This rice helps control blood sugar, insulin and appetite control; therefore, it is a good choice for those suffering from diabetes.
What is gluten?
Gluten is a protein found in some grains and it leads to malabsorption in people with celiac disease or gluten intolerance, severe gastrointestinal and allergic and intestinal damage.
Brown rice has always been introduced as one of the healthiest foods in the cereal group.
The most widely used type of rice among different types of rice is white rice, which has many properties.
- Due to its low fiber and easy digestion, this rice can be helpful for people with gastrointestinal diseases, those suffering from nausea, reflux or heartburn.
- Because white rice is a good source of fast-absorbing carbohydrates, it is a great option for athletes who do intense exercise.
- Iranian rice is gluten free; so it is not harmful for people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity.
Properties of white rice
Rice is one of the main foods of half of the world’s population, which is at least 20% of a person’s daily energy. As mentioned, brown rice has more properties than white rice due to its bran; but in general, it is better to have a diet that includes both types of rice. It should be noted that for people with severe digestive problems, white rice is better because it is easier to digest and has less fiber. White rice, on the other hand, is not good for diabetics, those suffering from metabolic syndrome, and obesity and it is better to consume it in moderation.
What is short grain rice?
Once the rice is harvested from the paddy field, it is taken to the factory to undergo the bleaching process and then can be eaten. During this process, some of the rice grains are broken and finally about 10 to 20% of the rice is made up of these broken and small grains, which is called “short grain rice“.
In terms of whether it is short grain rice or not, rice is divided into three types of sorted, unsorted and Sarlasheh.
What is sorted rice?
Sometimes in the factory it is sifted to separate broken rice grains. In this way, the seeds which are smaller and broken can be separated from the whole seeds. This rice is called sorted rice.
Sorted rice is divided into two categories. The speed of the machine can be adjusted, so that some small grain seed will be left in it and they are once sieved. Or in another condition the speed is adjusted so that the particles are completely separated which is called double sieved.
What is unsorted rice?
Rice that has not been sifted and its broken and fine grains have not been separated is called “unsorted rice“.
Grinding rice makes rice uniform, all its grains are even and after cooking, it looks nicer.
What is Sarlasheh rice?
Some people mix small grain rice with some whole rice, which is known as Sarlasheh rice. This kind of rice has a relatively good appearance and its price is more suitable than sorted rice. The rice is a good option for personal consumption.
What are the properties of rice water?
Water obtained from soaking rice or draining rice is rich in starch and has many properties.
What are the properties of rice water for hair?
Minerals and Antioxidants, vitamin E, vitamin B in rice water are all useful for hair health due to their amino acid content and group vitamins. Rice water, in addition to strengthening and rejuvenating the hair, keeps it natural and makes hair turn white later. Repairing damaged hair, increasing softness, increasing hair shine, strengthening the roots and hair growth are all benefits of rice water.
Some even believe that using rice water is good for the skin and makes the skin fresh and light.
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