What is a fig?
Fig Fruit are known as dark mulberries and from Ficus. They are native to the Mediterranean, therefore they love warmer climate. However they grow in the north. The trees have broad, hairy leaves with deep grooves. They have a deciduous tree, so that with the beginning of fall, the green leaves of this plant change to yellow and orange, and eventually fall off. This tree is originally native to parts of Southwest Asia and the Middle East.
The fig tree does not have very deep roots, but some fig trees have strangely deep roots. Pollination of figs are made from some bees that enter the seed from a small groove. Fig trees make fruit on branches, also some rare species of fig trees make figs on the stem. The fruit of wild fig trees has no commercial value and bees spend the winter in the fruit of these trees.
Figs are fruit trees that have a delicious and sweet pear-shaped fruit. They are very meaty and juicy at the same time with various uses, especially for jams, jellies, cooking and so on. Fig tree has different varieties. For this reason, the fruit of this plant appears in different colors of green, purple, yellow and more. It has many properties so that in addition to fruit, the leaves of this plant are also used in traditional medicine. The height of this plant, depending on climate conditions, is variable and reaches to 12 meters. It grows in most areas and needs sunlight, suitable temperature, soil, irrigation, timely pruning and fertilizer to grow well. It also grows relatively easily and quickly.
If the irrigation of this plant is excessive, the fruit of this plant will leave cracks. The flowers of this plant are both male and female and appear inside pear-like inflorescence. The first fresh fruit of this tree appears from the second or third year. But fruiting of fig tree takes 5 to 10 years depending on different conditions. The point is that the part that is known and used as fruit of the fig tree is not actually a fruit, but actually it is a pear appendage. It is a shape in which fig flowers are placed in large numbers and the sugar material surrounds it.
Fig tree is generally divided into two categories of edible and non-edible figs, the non-edible type of which is male tree. It is said to grow in three forms: spring, summer and winter. The one which grows in spring, is used for spraying of feed fig. In another division, the fig tree is divided into three categories of edible, ornamental and wild which are as follows:
There are different types of edible figs which are as follows:
It is the most important species of fig that has different species which are as follows:
The green fig, as its name implies, produces green fruits and has a circular crown and vertical growth. It has a high yield. It has dense branches and leaves and usually has several trunks. The fruit of this plant is very sweet and has thin skin. It is also rich in various vitamins.
Black fig is one of the varieties of figs whose fruit is dark purple and has a wide crown that is resistant to cold. It has a thin skin and has a sour and sweet taste that is suitable for eating fresh.
It is another type of edible fig that has a medium yield. The fruit of this plant is golden yellow and it is like a pear. The fruit of this plant is very suitable for eating fresh and also has a sweet taste.
It is another type of edible fig that has a medium yield and a broad crown. The fruit of this plant is yellow and has a sweet taste. It`s mostly used for eating fresh and preparing jams. The fruit of this plant is not appropriate to dry.
It is another species of fig tree, whose fruit is black and the tip is darker than other sections. It is a medium-sized fig that has a sour and sweet taste and is suitable for eating fresh.
Plantain leaves have yellowish-green fruits and are considered early trees. The fruit is used for eating and drying.
It grows little, but has good yields. Its fruit is white and the flesh of the fruit is lemon yellow. It has sweet, juicy and fleshy fruit and is considered an early tree.
It`s good for eating fresh and has a sour and sweet taste with many properties.
This fig produces two types of products. The first crop does not require pollination, but the second crop need it, since if there is no pollination, the fruit will fall off. The species have different varieties.
They have dark-skinned fruits and a sweet taste. This fig is one of the best varieties. This species is more common in the United States and is sensitive to cold.
It has a sweet taste. It is also called “sugar fig” and has a good variety for making jams and eating fresh. The outer skin of the fruit is light purple and the fleshy part is yellow.
Kadota fig is one of the most common species of fig tree. Its fruit is yellow and green and its fleshy part is red. The fruit of this plant ripens in late summer. It`s suitable for eating fresh and making jams and jellies.
Brown Turkish figs
Turkish brown figs have shiny leaves. They are pear-shaped and have reddish-brown fruits with a fleshy part which is red.
Bronzo vik figs
They are beautiful fig species that grow as short shrubs up to 4 meters, the fruit of this plant is self-fruitful. The fruit of this plant appears in two colors, purple and green, and its fleshy part is red.
Adriatic figs are yellowish green with a fleshy red color. The sweetness of this type of fig is less compared to other species.
Brown figs have a sweet taste and are very fleshy and juicy. They grow like short shrubs and their leaves are relatively big and green.
Kali Mirna figs
Kali Mirna fig is green in color which has a sweet taste. It has a thick skin.
Types of wild figs
Wild figs have different varieties, which are as follows:
Figs of Ficus Bengalensis
Ficus bengalensis fig is a species of wild fig that is native to parts of India. This type of fig can be also found in different areas of Hormozgan and Abadan cities in Iran.
Temple fig tree
This type of fig is native to parts of India with heart-shaped leaves that are green and the ends are narrower and more elongated. In Iran, this type of fig is mostly planted in pots.
This type of fig, which is known by different names, grows mostly in the northern forests of Mazandaran province in Iran. Wood of his plant is used in carpentry to prepare citrus, boxes and so on.
Juanis fig is a type of wild fig that mostly grows in areas such as Baluchistan, Fars, Kazerun, Tabas and more. It grows as a short shrub and has few leaves. The leaves of this plant have cuts. The fruit of this plant is ovoid and velvety.
Ornamental figs also have different varieties, which are as follows:
Ficus figs with large leaves
Large-leaved ficus fig grows mostly in rainforests. It has both ornamental and industrial uses and has shiny leaves.
Ficus figs with small leaves
They are another species of ornamental figs that have small leaves.
Sticky figs rise from other trees next to them with their succulent roots. They have dark green leaves and are used to decorate houses.
Fig propagation methods
The fig tree is propagated by seed, cuttings, grafting, pruning and dormancy, which is briefly explained in this section.
Note that in planting seeds, the seed tree will never look like its mother. In planting seeds, first separate seeds from the fruit of the plant. For this purpose, cut the fruit of the tree in half and use water to remove the fleshy part from the seed, so that no flesh is left on the small seeds of this plant. Place isolated seeds in a napkin. Prepare your seedling tray or pot and fill it with rich and fertile soil. Plant seeds superficially, cover them with a thin layer of soft soil and fertilizer and irrigate the plant with a sprinkler, so that the seeds do not move. Keep the soil moist until germination. For this purpose, it is better to cover the seeds with a nylon and then make several small holes for air conditioning in the nylon. After a while the seeds germinate and begins to grow. This plant has a rapid growth. When the plant grows transfer it to a larger pot and finally, transfer the obtained seedlings to the main land. For this purpose, create a pit at the appropriate depth, plant the seed right in the center of the pit and fill with soil around the roots. Finally, water the plant.
Another common method of growing a fig tree is cutting. In this method, first create a pit and prepare cuttings from trees that produce high-quality produce. Then plant them immediately in the pit. For accelerating in rooting of cuttings, you can use rooting hormone. After a while, the cuttings take root and start growing.
Offshoot is another way to grow a fig tree. In this way, there are many cuttings around the fig tree. They come out of the soil and you have to dig them out with the roots they have. Then dig a hole at the right depth. Next, press it to create the root size of the plant. Plant the cuttings inside it and surround it with suitable soil until the roots of the stump come in contact with the soil.
This is another way to propagate a fig tree. In this method, create a pit without separating the plant from the branch and try to place the tree branch inside it. The dormant branch of the tree takes root after a while, and the root of the plant penetrates the soil. Once the branch is properly rooted and begins to grow, separate it from the mother branch of the plant.
Using grafts is the last method for propagating the fig tree. Grafting method is mostly used to convert different figs. The time of transplantation is in May.
Environmental conditions for fig tree growth
Environmental conditions are important for the growth and maintenance of the fig tree, and we will examine each of these conditions.
Fig tree soil
About six to seven and a half PH. Figs grow well in most soils, whatever they are, from light sand to hard clay. Lemon soils are the best soil for growing figs. If fig tree is planted in areas containing this soil, as the foliage grows a lot, fruiting will be delayed for two or three years.
Climate of fig tree
Rainfall required for figs in dry land plantations is 300 to 400 mm per year with suitable dispersion from mid-autumn to early spring. Rainfall during fruiting and inoculation of the tree can be harmful and may reduce the yield of the tree. If harvesting is followed by rainfall, it may reduce the quality of the product. Suitable temperature for the growth of this plant is 25 to 30 degrees Celsius.
The height of this plant varies from 4 to 12 meters depending on the growing conditions, soil, environment and more.
It is a sun-loving plant that needs full sunlight to grow. It is also resistant to partial shade. It needs 6 to 8 hours of daily sunlight.
Planting distance between trees is 4 to 7 meters and row spacing is 4 to 5 meters.
Irrigation of fig tree
Figs can tolerate drought well, therefore planting them in dry areas is not a big problem. Water quality for figs is not as important as other fruits. Figs have shallow roots, however they can`t stand waterlogged areas and can not withstand severe damage in the face of severe drought. In fruitful and rainy seasons, fruits of figs may crack. If figs are irrigated at 50% of the evaporation pan, they will grow well.
Pruning the fig tree
Like other fruit trees, they need pruning for its health and continuous growth. This plant is pruned every year. In this stage, you must cut off the dried and excess branches of the plant that hinder the growth and development of the tree. Proper pruning makes the fig bigger and results in a better quality. Pruning time of fig tree takes place after the first cooling time in the middle of autumn.
Fig tree fertilizer
Figs are sensitive to sodium, but iron and zinc deficiencies do not have much effect on them. Fig tree like other trees needs fertilization to increase flowering, growth, fruit quality and more. Fertilization of this plant should be done regularly. You can use chemical and organic fertilizers along with rotten animal manure. The use of fertilizer increases the quality of the fruit.
Each tree suffers from different pests and diseases that require the use of different methods to fight and eliminate pests and diseases. Fig tree is no exception, because it suffers from pests and diseases, some of which are as follows:
Ants may cause serious damage to the fig tree. This small insect damages the tree in two forms: Plastophage insect, which pollinates figs, is the food of ants. Destroying this insect, the ant causes the fruits not to be inoculated properly, and finally the fruits fall off after growth. Second, it reduces the quality of the fruit. Therefore, the use of chemical toxins can be useful.
This moth is one of the common pests of figs that causes serious damage to the fig tree. The insect may cause damage to the dried figs as well.
As the name suggests, it is an insect species feeds on plant leaves and causes plant leaves to fall.
This pest is usually found in storages and damages dried figs.
This beetle is an insect that damages the fig tree. This type of beetle has a long horn and you can use chemical toxins to kill it.
Fig fruit flies (Drosophilidae)
Fig fruit fly is an insect that causes damage to the fig tree, especially the fruit.
Fig spider mite
Fig spider mite is a common pest of fig tree that causes a lot of damage to the branches and leaves of the plant. It causes the leaves to dry out and turn yellow, making them to fall off.
Canker or dried figs
Canker is a fungal disease that enters the tree through wounds and into the bark and woody tissues. It spreads and quickly causes progressive disease. In the first year of the disease there are slight changes in the shell, but the symptoms of the disease become clearer from the second year. It infects the entire diameter of the branch throughout the year and causes death. You can use chemical toxins to eliminate this disease.
Fig fruit fermentation
Fig fruit is very favorable to insects, because of its sweet taste. In case of cracking, insects enter the fig, which is one of the causes of fruit fermentation. The disease is transmitted through vinegar flies or beetle and enters the fruit through the eyes of the fig fruit and makes it sour.
Fig mosaic disease is one of the most serious diseases of the fig tree. In fact, it is a kind of virus in which several viruses are involved. This disease causes severe fruit drop before ripening.
How to harvest a fig tree
The fruit of the fig tree is harvested like any other fruit tree. When harvesting, hold the fig fruit with your hand and pull to detach it from the branch which is easily detached from the branch. Therefore, you do not need scissors or a knife. Gently place it in a box or basket, as the fruit of this plant is very soft and spoils if thrown. Continue to use this harvest method.
Use of fig tree
Fig tree has different uses which are as follows:
- The fruit of this plant is used for fresh eating
- They use it to make jams
- The fruit of this plant is dried and then eaten
- The dried fruits of this plant are used to prepare natural juices
- It is used in cooking
- They use it to make juice
- The leaves of this plant are used in traditional medicine
Mini order: 20 Tons