Travertine(Building Stone) is a decorative stone that is in the category of porous limestone. These stones are actually left from sediments of hot springs and cavities on rocks. The cavities are caused by gases trapped in the same hot springs.
The variety of colors and the high pattern of travertine stones make them an ideal choice for designing the facades of buildings, walls and floors of pools, floors and paving. While the degree of porosity and quality of rocks also vary it leaves the hands of those interested free to choose.
Travertine stones are usually available in ivory white or completely white and caramel. More common colors naturally are more economical, while stones with rarer colors are often much more expensive.
White and light colors have the highest distribution among other colors of travertine, therefore, their price is lower than other colors. The color of each stone is due to salts and elements that originate in warm waters.
The lower the amount of solutes and elements soluble in these waters, the lighter the color of the rock and more elements make the stone darker and more expensive. There are also special and popular colors such as brown, gold and gray which are sold at very high prices and have their own buyers.
Long life and extremely high strength of travertine stones is another important competitive advantage.
Travertine stones usually travel long distances to reach their destination and often do not suffer much damage along the way. In addition, they have high chemical and thermal resistance and are suitable for cold environments, especially in higher thicknesses.
Of course, you should bear in mind that travertine stones are usually vulnerable when they are subject to constant freezing and thawing, for this reason, thin thickness of these stones should not be used in cold spaces and environments.
As mentioned, travertine rocks are the result of hot springs. Hot water pass through carbonate and limestone stones. Due to their acidic nature, calcium carbonate passes through their movement and the rocks are also dissolved and transported to the earth in the form of carbonate and bicarbonate solutions.
At the surface, pressure and temperature drop, carbon dioxide release and evaporation cause the production of calcite crystals. Those are crystals, which are deposited in layers on top of each other and form travertine rocks.
If the conditions are stable and continuous, the number of layers will gradually increase and travertine stone is produced with high thickness.
Of course, it may not be possible to continue this situation at all times. Some can be seen in the rock texture of travertine stone and are precisely the result of these changes in conditions that sometimes even add to the beauty of the stone.
Calcium, manganese, silica, organic matter as well as divalent and trivalent irons are salts and elements that are inside travertine stones and they determine color and quality.
What is leather travertine?
Although travertine stones are of natural origin, their identification, extraction, processing and preparation for use in the building naturally require a series of tasks. The first task is to cut these stones, which can be done in two ways:
- (Veincut) cutting perpendicular to layering
- (Crosscut) cutting parallel to layering
After this stage, the most important stage is finishing or polishing the stone in stone cutting. How to finish the surface can determine its final appearance. Polished travertine stones are rough travertine stones and antique or leather travertine stones which are the result of some measures at this stage.
As the name implies, grinding and polishing the stone increase the gloss and smoothness of its surface. However, in some types of travertine stones, which are called leather travertine stones, in addition to removing this step, they use acid to open the pores of the stone surface and using some wire brushes they rub the surface to lose their polished surface completely.
Atashkooh travertine stone has a white and light cream background. This stone has various uses in construction such as the main and exterior facades of classic or modern buildings, walls and interior facades, landscaping and construction of artifacts.
This type of travertine stone is known as walnut travertine in the market due to its similarity to the color of walnut skin. It has a very high resistance to cold, heat and in slippery condition. It is mostly used in interior, exterior and the flooring of the building.
Hajiabad Abrobad travertine stone has cream background with scattered white spots and is used for interior and exterior facade of buildings, parking paving, landscaping and stone decorative artifacts.
Hajiabad stone has light and dark cream and white backgrounds, the color of which does not change over time. Uses of Hajiabad travertine are interior and exterior of the building, classic and modern facades, margins, stairs and staircases and stone artifacts.
Khormaii Takab travertine stone has brown background with white veins. This stone is used in the interior and interior walls, landscaping and construction of decorative artifacts.
One of the types of travertine stones is Khalkhal stone has a chocolate cream spectrum. Khalkhal stone like other members of travertine family is used in the interior and exterior of the building.
Leather Darreh bokhari
This stone has a bright and cream background. It is mostly used in facades and interior walls of buildings, staircase, parking floor and lobby wall covering.
Bright Darreh Charmi
This stone is one of the best travertine stones for use in facade in terms of quality and light background.
Wave Darreh Bokhari
This stone is one of the most famous and popular travertine stones in Iran and has irregular dark brown waves in white and cream background. Application of this stone is in interior and exterior facades of residential and commercial buildings, office, landscaping and stone artifacts.
Leather Silver Maragheh
This type of travertine is calcareous compared to other types. It is therefore flexible and malleable. The best and most uses of this stone is in the facade and interior walls of the building.
The stone has a cream and chocolate color spectrum. It is used for interior and exterior walls of buildings, stone, carpet and yard.
Abbasabad travertine stone is one of the best stones in the world in terms of beauty, light color, with very high strength, excellent reproducibility and unique design.
This stone is used for the exterior of residential and office buildings, the bottom base of the wall, corridors and stairs, flooring of office and residential buildings.
Kashan travertine stone with chocolate brown color theme is used for the main and exterior of classic and modern buildings, interior, garage paving, landscaping and construction of stone artifacts.
Persian Marmara Marble is one of the most luxurious materials that has been abundant in our country for many years.
A stone that is mostly a symbol of luxury and expensive buildings and is generally used in interior decoration which have a large and pleasant space. They are accumulated from luxury, stylish and of course valuable furniture. This stone, especially with the advancement of technology, the emergence of new mines and increasing imports, is diversifying today. If you wish, you can use a variety of designs and colors for interior decoration. To learn more about the nature of Persian Marmara Marble, their applications and ideas for optimal use join us and read this article.
It is referred to Rakham in traditional medicine texts. It’s a marble which is caused by the metamorphism of limestone. Metamorphic rock is a type of metamorphic rock and the main mineral is calcite, which is crystallized due to metamorphism which created this precious stone. This stone can be used for sculpture, engraving, etc. in the best possible way. It has a wide range of historical, luxurious and ancient buildings and gives extraordinary beauty to such buildings. Taj Mahal, for example is a symbol that shows the indescribable beauty of marble in the facade and even the interior decoration of the building.
One of the beautiful aspects of this type of marble is the presence of signs that makes these stones more special. Of course, it is true that these signs are due to the presence of some impurities in the main mineral of the rock, such as silica, mica, iron oxide, graphite or calcareous material, but many people attribute the presence of these impurities or streaks to plain and streak-free marbles. The color of metamorphosed stone depends on impurities.
Features of Persian Marmara Marble:
These stones can have various properties depending on the types and varieties. However, in general several unique properties can be enumerated for this type of metamorphic rocks:
- Specific weight (density) equal to 2560 kg per cubic meter
- High and significant color variation (so they can be seen in cream, red, brown, pink, black, mustard, green, etc)
Green Marble, Enix, Emperor Light and Dark are examples of Persian Marmara Marble that can be mentioned.
Onyx is a brand of Persian Marmara Marble in global markets
The main import of Persian Marmara Marble products is from India and China, while its main mines are in Italy as the largest exporter of marble. There are less mines of this stone in Iran than in countries like Italy. However, in some parts of the country such as Sanandaj, Sirjan, Azna or Aligudarz, significant Persian Marmara Marble mines can be found.
The remarkable thing about Persian Marmara Marble that you might also be interested in, is that Persian Marmara Marble by no means is similar to marble! Although most people confuse marble and Persian Marmara Marble, it should be mentioned that marbles are the result of changes made to travertine and bear no resemblance to Persian Marmara Marble in this article. One of the most important differences between marble and Persian Marmara Marble is its texture. In fact, marbles have a more locked texture than Persian Marmara Marble, and in simpler terms, marbles are more transformative. In our country, Iran, we have all three types of marbles, Persian Marmara Marble and travertine and we do use them.
Types of Persian Marmara Marble
Marble stones are divided into the following three types depending on the intensity of metamorphism.
- Glass PersianMarmara Marble
- Crystal PersianMarmara Marble
- Cloudy PersianMarmara Marble
Benefits of Persian Marmara Marble
- Higher compressive strength and reliability compared to travertine stones
- Ability to engrave, polish, etc.
- Smooth and shiny surface
- Having a very high water absorption
- Hersin PersianMarmara Marble
A metamorphic stone that is formed by the recrystallization of limestone. Hersin is a precious stone for its beauty, strength, resistance to fire and erosion.
Khoy Persian Marmara Marble
It is one of the most famous marble stones in the country, the mine of which is located in Khoy, Azerbaijan. It is durable and its texture is very compact, so it has a high resistance. Khoy Persian Marmara Marble has a relatively high price due to its high quality.
Kashmar Persian Marmara Marble
It is processed in different dimensions. Its mine is located in Kashmar city of Khorasan Razavi. It is one of the white marbles and has been used by many builders due to its special and bright color.
It has two designs: full line and low line. Crystal lines and deer antlers in Persian Marmara Marble are variable.
Abadeh Persian Marmara Marble
It is one of the bright stones with a reasonable price and its mines are located in Abarkooh region of Yazd province. It is suitable for using in the stairs, the floor of stairs and the floor of residential space.
Golden Persian Marmara Marble
It has a black background with gold and sometimes white lines on it which made it special. Its stone mines are in different parts of the country, including the cities of Mahallat, Kashan and Yazd.
Golden Black Persian Marmara Marble is one of the most widely used building stones, but it is not used in the outdoor space of construction projects because it loses its calcareous veins over time when it is exposed to cold and rain.
Peacock Persian Marmara Marble
It has cream and floral olive colors.
The structure of this rock includes grains of different sizes of granite as one of the inner igneous rocks. This rock is composed of several elements such as feldspar, some minerals as well as mica. In fact the reason for the diversity of color in different samples of this stone is the predominance of each of these elements in its structure.
Granite is found in nature in colors such as gray, pink, black and so on. One of the most important parameters of building stones are their strength. Therefore, it is better to deal with the task of resistance before continuing the discussion. This stone has a high resistance. For example, we can say that the resistance of granite is more than travertine stones such as Persian Marmara Marble.
The polished surface of this stone, which is difficult to remove, is another advantage. Of course, we will deal with features of this stone later.
To get a deeper and broader understanding of this stone, it is better to first look at its types:
Types of granite and their characteristics:
Granite can be classified according to different criteria. One of these categories is based on color.
Elements such as quartz, micar, amphibole, feldspar and so on create a high color diversity in different amounts.
These colors are
- Blue granite
- White granite
- Pink granite
- Black granite
- Red granite
- Black and white granite
- Green granite
Another type of classification of stones is based on where they are harvested. Because in any area they have various characteristics based on the climate conditions, soils in the area, mine depth and so on.
This is especially true about Granite stones. For this reason, some of the types of granite stones available in the country continue will be introduced.
Introduction of Zahedan Granite
Zahedan granite has a different appearance than other granites available in the market. This stone has a floral design and is introduced as one of the brightest granite stones. The appearance of this stone has a very regular and beautiful granulation. Its peppercorns have a uniform surface and this is one of its special advantages. Look at following features to know more about this stone:
- High impact and pressure resistance
- Low water absorption
- Various uses (kitchen counter, interior decoration, stairs and so on)
Introduction of Nehbandan granite
This stone is very similar to the previous one. In fact, this stone also has high resistance, low water absorption, uniformity and so on. Different stones have special uses and Nehbandan stone is more suitable for use in Industrial offices and environments. In summary, we reach the following list:
- High resistance
- Low water absorption
- Level uniformity
- Used as a stepping stone
Introducing Natanz Granite
One of the special differences of this stone is its color. The main color of this stone is black. Of course, the stones of Natanz have various characteristics due to the large number of mines. For example, one of the differences of these rocks is their opacity and light color. But other features of Natanz granite stone are as follows:
- High resistance (pressure and wear)
- High resistance to environmental factors and weather conditions
- Low water absorption
- Application as interior flooring and so on
Introducing Tuyserkan granite
Black is also the main background color of Tuyserkan granite. This stone has a high quality and similar applications in other types:
- Properties of Tuyserkan granite
- High reliability
- Uniform and beautiful black color
- Application as interior flooring of buildings, stairs and so on
- High resistance
Let`s meet the applications of granite
In the previous sections, we introduced granite in general and named some of its types. In this section, we will only have an overview of the types of granite to have a better understanding.
Subcutaneous granite stones are often known as a suitable building stone for the interior of the building. Some of these applications include staircase, kitchen counter, toilet stone, kitchen, wall covering and so on. But rugged granite stones without sub are used in cases such as sidewalks and in some cases such as wall coverings.
Advantages of granite
During the introduction of different types of granite, we enumerated the advantages of different types. Other advantages of granite depending on the structure and type:
High resistance against water penetration (low water absorption)
This advantage allows you to use granite in parts of the house that are exposed to water. We have mentioned such cases in the previous sections. (Kitchen sink, flooring and so on)
One of the concerns of people in using building stones for kitchen countertops is putting hot dishes on them. If you use granite, you no longer need to worry about it.
Due to its high strength, this stone has a long life and is damaged by external forces (pressure).
Resistance to environmental factors and weather conditions
The above features turned this stone into a stone resistant to weather conditions such as rain, cold and heat, sunshine, and wind.
This feature prevents the stone from being damaged if it is washed with chemical detergents and its radiance is not reduced.
Mini order: 5 Cont