All about pistachios: Pistachio is known as one of the most important agricultural products in Iran, and gardeners from all over the country are looking to expand this cultivation. The plants of this family are trees and shrubs. Male flowers appear in mid to late April and female flowers a few days later in clusters.
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Planting pistachios requires a comprehensive examination of the conditions, environment and accessible facilities. In order to build a pistachio garden and plant a pistachio tree, one should pay attention to things like soil, temperature and water in the desired area for pistachio tree planting method, planting pattern (preparation of planting plan), type of climate and weather, preparation of healthy seedlings and land preparation.
Pistachio tree and its characteristics
The pistachio tree is native to Western Asia and Asia Minor and has a relatively long growth period before puberty and fertility. This plant starts to produce fruit in a small amount at the age of five to six years and reaches full fertility at the age of ten to twelve years. Pistachio is a dioecious tree, with male and female flowers on separate trees. Therefore, both male and female trees are needed to produce a crop and build a pistachio garden. Pistachio pollination is the responsibility of the wind; the pistachio tree is deciduous and has intermittent fertility; it means that the product is more every other year, which is called annualization.
The pistachio tree soil must have the right characteristics, which include the following:
Suitable pH: The soil for pistachio tree planting should have a pH between 7 and 8. This makes nutrients in the soil better absorbed and pistachio tree growth improves.
Light texture: Soil with a light texture that contains organic matter and required nutrients is suitable for pistachio tree growth. Due to its light texture, this soil has very good drainage, and in terms of this feature, it can help a lot in the better growth of pistachio trees.
Contains nutrients: the soil must contain sufficient amounts of nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium and nitrogen, which are very effective in the growth and development of the pistachio tree. These nutrients cause the roots to grow quickly and increase the growth rate of the pistachio tree.
Dry soil with proper drainage: The soil for pistachio tree planting must have proper drainage, in other words, the soil must be dry so that the roots of the pistachio tree are not damaged. Also, the soil must have proper drainage so that water can pass through it well and the roots of the pistachio tree have sufficient access to water.
The best soil for planting pistachio seedlings
The best soil for planting pistachio seedlings are soils with a pH of 1.7 to 7.8. It is better to plow and drain the soil well before planting pistachio seedlings so that the roots can grow well in the soil and use the soil resources. Pistachio trees perform better in loamy sandy soils with great depth. The pistachio tree is actually quite resistant to a slight change in pH and can tolerate more alkaline conditions if necessary. The ability to develop deep roots in the pistachio tree allows it to tolerate different pH levels. The roots of pistachio trees can seek moisture and nutrients in many types of soil, such as rock layers; Instead of being confined to a limited area with low or high pH. One of the problems of the pistachio garden is frost; the deeper the soil, the greater its ability to absorb heat. The dark color of soils also causes the soil to absorb more heat, and dark soils lose their heat later than light soils.
In areas that have light soil and contain a lot of clay, frost is more likely; in light soils, it is recommended to irrigate before frost. When the soil has enough water, it stores and transfers heat better.
Suitable climate for building pistachio garden
To investigate the climate of each region, important factors such as weather, rainfall, relative humidity, altitude above sea level and latitude should be considered. The suitable climate for building a pistachio garden is the areas with hot, dry and long summers. The temperature of about 38 degrees Celsius in summer produces a large amount of quality products. In general, semi-desert areas with hot, dry and long summers and low humidity and cold winters are suitable for planting pistachio seedlings.
The relative humidity of the area at the time of pollination should be between 35 and 50%. Also, after shedding leaves, pistachio trees need a period of hibernation for about six weeks with a temperature between zero and -7 degrees Celsius to meet their cold needs. Long-term cold of -12 degrees Celsius destroys trees. Therefore, when planting pistachio seedlings, you must pay attention to the coldness of the region and the weather and climate conditions. To plant a pistachio tree in Tehran or other parts of Iran, the climatic conditions of that region must be checked.
Planting pistachio trees in cold regions
Planting pistachio trees in cold regions creates challenges for the farmers of these regions due to harsh and unsuitable weather conditions. The pistachio tree does not tolerate cold and frost, but it shows good resistance to drought. High humidity during pistachio pollination, gives fruit formation and on the other hand, increases the possibility of fungal diseases. To plant pistachios in cold regions, a place with sufficient sunlight and the best access to water should be chosen. Areas that face sudden and severe spring colds are not suitable for planting pistachios.
Also, to plant pistachio trees in cold regions, the soil must have enough organic matter and nutrients to help the pistachio tree grow. To plant pistachios in cold regions, it is important to choose suitable cultivars, soil type, weather conditions and planting location; which can be achieved through consultation with agricultural experts and conducting soil tests.
Planting pistachio trees in tropical regions
Pistachio tree planting is more recommended in tropical regions. During the growing season, the temperature between 25 and 38 degrees Celsius is suitable for the growth of pistachio trees. The minimum and maximum temperature for planting pistachio trees is between 20 and 42 degrees Celsius. Therefore, for planting pistachio trees, the right choice is areas with warm and somewhat dry weather.
Cold requirement of pistachio garden
The minimum period of cold that a fruit tree needs to bloom is called cold requirement. The cooling requirement depends on the temperature and duration of cold air and is calculated by different methods.
Pistachio garden temperature
Air temperature is also one of the determining factors for adaptation or lack of adaptation of pistachio seedlings. If the temperature of the region is not compatible with the pistachio variety, the pistachio seedling will be completely destroyed within two to three years after planting. The air temperature of the area should be checked in three time positions.
Winter: In winter, the temperature should be checked to meet the cooling needs of the pistachio garden. Commercial varieties of pistachios need to be kept between 600 and 1200 hours at a temperature between zero and seven degrees Celsius. The production of trees that are exposed to cold for less than six hundred hours will be difficult.
Temperature of the growing season: During the growing season, the temperature between 25 and 38 degrees Celsius is suitable for the growth of pistachio trees. The minimum and maximum temperature for planting pistachio trees is between 20 and 42 degrees Celsius. It is not recommended to plant pistachio trees in cold regions; because the pistachio tree is not adapted to low temperature and gets frostbite.
Pollination: The temperature during the pollination of pistachio trees in spring is between 16 and 22 degrees Celsius. At the time of pollination, the ambient temperature should not be less than 10 and more than 30 degrees Celsius.
Pistachio garden humidity
It is important to check the humidity of the area during the growing season and at the time of pollination to build a pistachio garden.
The humidity of the area during the growing season: the humidity suitable for the growth of pistachio trees is between 25 and 35%. Pistachio trees cannot tolerate humidity above 60%.
Humidity of the area during pollination: humidity between 35 and 50% is suitable for pollination. Humidity over 70% can make pollination difficult.
Height above sea level for planting pistachio seedlings
The best altitude for pistachio trees is between 800 and 8000 meters above sea level. Of course, some pistachio trees can withstand a height between 1,800 and 2,200 meters or between 200 and 900 meters above sea level. It should be noted that pistachio trees are destroyed at an altitude of less than 200 and more than 2200 meters above sea level. Usually, pistachio trees are not planted at a height higher than 1370 meters; because the temperature is low in summer; therefore, the pistachio core is not formed. The suitable latitude for pistachio trees is between 27 and 37 degrees north.
Male pistachio tree and female pistachio tree
The pistachio tree is dioecious, that is, the male and female flowers are located on two separate stems, and in the pistachio garden, the male and female trees, which are two separate trees, should be planted in a proper arrangement. The essence of the matter is that the pollens are released from the flowers of the male tree and are scattered in the air by the wind and placed on the flowers of the female tree, and after pollination, inoculation must take place to form pistachios.
How old is the pistachio tree?
The pistachio variety determines the start of fruiting of pistachio seedlings, local varieties of pistachio need a long time to reach fruiting time after planting, but commercial varieties are usually early and fruitful, and their fruiting often starts in two to three years. Usually, the pistachio tree bears fruit at the age of five, and the fruiting life of the pistachio tree is about fifty years.
Pistachio orchard in America
Pistachio tree planting in America is done in hot and dry regions of this country. The pistachio tree planting pattern in America is 125 to 150 trees per hectare. These trees are usually planted 6 to 8 meters apart.
The price of pistachio seedlings
The price of pistachio seedlings, for example, the price of Akbari grafted pistachio seedlings and other pistachio seedlings used by farmers varies. The price of pistachio seedlings is highly variable and depends on various factors such as the type and age of seedlings, cultivation area, weather conditions and sales market. In general, the price of pistachio seedlings in different markets of Iran can vary for each seedling. Also, to buy pistachio seedlings, you can visit online stores or agricultural seedling sales centers. In any case, when buying pistachio seedlings, it is better to pay attention to the quality and authenticity of the seedlings and buy from reliable sellers.
How many kilos does each pistachio tree give?
Pistachio production is highly dependent on several factors such as weather conditions, soil, tree type and age, cultivation method, fertilizer management, etc. Therefore, the yield of each pistachio tree is different and cannot be given a fixed number.
Pistachio seedlings often produce in the fourth or fifth year. Fruiting of pistachio tree at this young age is usually around one to two kilograms. The average production of one to two kilograms of dry pistachio nuts per pistachio tree, equivalent to three to six kilograms of pistachios with fresh skin, takes about ten years.
Getting to know the benefits and side effects of eating pistachios
Pistachio has many properties and benefits for the human body, but it should be avoided because pistachio is not good for some people and they should avoid eating pistachio.
Among its advantages, it can be said that pistachios are a healthy diet for the heart, which reduces the probability of cardiovascular diseases in humans. Pistachios are rich in the antioxidant lutein, but they also have disadvantages that we will mention below.
Benefits of eating pistachios
Pistachio consumption is effective in preventing cardiovascular diseases. Pistachios also help to regulate your heartbeat and reduce bad cholesterol in the blood. Pistachio kernels are also blood-forming because of their iron content, and those suffering from anemia must eat some pistachios every day. Due to these properties, pistachios are used in many types of sweets. Buying and ordering pistachios online is also one of the most popular options for confectioners.
The white skin of pistachio is useful for hemorrhoids and it is used to treat it, which relieves the pain and relieves the disease. There are various prices of pistachios in the market, and the purchase of fresh pistachio nuts by the kilo or types of Akbari, Rafsanjan, etc. are different from each other and have various qualities. Also:
- Eating pistachios strengthens sexual power.
- It strengthens the brain and mind.
- It is useful for calming the heart and calming the nerves.
- It is recommended to eat pistachios to open the liver channels.
- Pistachio strengthens the stomach.
- It is useful for relieving cough.
- Treats common diarrhea and dysentery.
- Decoction of pistachio tree bark is useful for relieving itching of female genital organs.
- A decoction of pistachio bark and leaves is useful for pain and itching of the anus.
The green pistachio skin also has the following properties:
- To strengthen the gums, apply it on the gums or chew it.
- To cure hiccups, brew pistachio green skin and drink a cup of it.
- It is the best remedy for bad breath.
- Chewing it heals the wounds inside the mouth.
- Pistachio green skin infusion removes heartburn and vomiting.
- Its infusion is useful for diarrhea.
Side effects of eating pistachios
As we mentioned, pistachio has many properties, but its consumption is not recommended for people with high blood triglyceride levels. Also, due to its difficult digestion, it is not suitable for the stomach, and eating too much of it causes body heat and hives and red seeds on the skin. Vinegar, sour pomegranate or sour apricot leaves should be used to remove heat and dryness.
Also, it is better for people who have weakness and liver failure, and those suffering from gout, diabetes, and kidney problems, not to use this brain because it will make the conditions worse for them. In addition, pistachio nuts are hot and dry according to old Iranian medicine, and people with a hot temperament should consume less of them.
Pistachio nuts also increase the possibility of hives and skin pimples due to their warm nature, and eating pistachios is not suitable for people with skin allergies; Due to its high fat and difficult digestion, it is also harmful for those who have a weak stomach.
On the other hand, the consumption of pistachios should be controlled and more than 10-20 pistachios per day should not be consumed. Because extra calories can be harmful to the body alone. It can also make you suffer from heartache, diarrhea, or bloating, which is much more felt by pregnant women than others.
Sometimes, people with allergies should use pistachios with more caution because consuming too much will aggravate their allergies. Swelling, coughing, nausea, difficulty in breathing, etc. are among the side effects of eating too many pistachios in people with high sensitivity.